J-STD-006C: Requirements for Electronic Grade Solder Alloys and Fluxed and Non-Fluxed Solid Solders for Electronic Soldering Applications
Energy Storage and Conversion Systems
The news media is replete with reports about next generation smart phones and mobile computers, zero-emission electric vehicles (EV) and renewable energy from solar and wind. All of them are, or promise to be, large markets, and share at their core a key element to store and deliver electrical energy. The battery in the recent releases of smart phones is now the center of specifications, reviews in the media and critical blogs. The message from the public is simple: the battery in consumer electronics falls short of the expectations of the user. The battery in electric vehicles, ones already on the road and new ones that are to be launched soon, continues to be the single most difficult challenge that prevents the mass adoption of EVs, both in performance and cost. Finally, as states dictate aggressive renewable portfolio standards (RPS) requiring an ever increasing percentage of energy to be produced from renewable energy sources, electrical utilities grapple with how to tie solar and wind farms to the grid when their peak energy generation is often out of sync with consumption. This roadmap chapter deals with a number of energy storage markets, including consumer electronics, electric/hybrid vehicles, and electric grid storage. In addition to quantifying technical and business attributes over the ten year roadmap horizon, other related topics such as EV charging infrastructure, government incentives, and regulatory regimes are addressed. Key information is organized in 11 tables and 17 figures, helping the reader to better understand the trends and challenges.